The many alleged identities of Bitcoin’s mysterious creator, Satoshi Nakamoto

Blue bitcoin

Blue bitcoin

Yuichiro Chino

  • The identity of Bitcoin’south creator is at the center of a Florida lawsuit over Satoshi Nakamoto’s $54 billion stake.
  • Since it was created in 2009, bitcoin has become a top digital currency.
  • Many names have been dropped as Bitcoin potential creators, but none have been proven.

The mystery behind the creator of Bitcoin and their over $54 billion stake has captured public attention again, every bit a court example in Florida seeks to verify the creator’s identity — an unlikely effort toward unraveling an enigma that has been over a decade in the making.

The family of a deceased man, David Kleiman, is claiming their family fellow member helped create the popular digital currency and is suing Kleiman’southward alleged business concern partner in the endeavor, Craig Wright, for half of Satoshi Nakemoto’southward 1.i million cache of Bitcoin.

For the by v years, Wright has been claiming on and off that he created Bitcoin, merely has failed to provide whatsoever proof of his ownership.

The creator could easily prove their identity by moving even a fraction of the cache of Bitcoin, or using the individual primal that controls the business relationship.

The identity of Bitcoin’south creator, known only equally “Satoshi Nakamoto,” has long been a point of major interest, especially as their personal wealth continues to grow. Since it was created in 2009, Bitcoin has experienced meaning highs and lows. In the by year, the currency has risen over 400%.

Bitcoin is considered the top cryptocurrency in the world by market value, but at that place’s still plenty of mystery surrounding its cosmos. Who came up with Bitcoin? Was it created by more ane person? And who is Nakamoto?

Hither’s a rundown on the currency’s strange beginnings:

In 2008, the offset inklings of bitcoin began to broadcast the web.


In August 2008, the domain name was quietly registered online. Two months later, a paper entitled ‘Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Greenbacks Organisation’ was passed around a cryptography mailing list.

The paper is the start instance of the mysterious effigy, Satoshi Nakamoto’s appearance on the spider web, and permanently links the name “Satoshi Nakamoto” to the cryptocurrency.

On January three, 2009, 30,000 lines of code spelled out the offset of Bitcoin.

A copy of bitcoin standing on PC motherboard is seen in this illustration motion-picture show

Thomson Reuters

Bitcoin runs through an democratic software program that is ‘mined’ by people seeking bitcoin in a lottery-based organisation. Over the course of the side by side 20 years, a total of 21 million coins will be released.

To date, well-nigh 90% of Bitcoin or about 18.7 million have been mined.

Satoshi Nakamoto didn’t work entirely alone.

Hal Finney


Among Bitcoin’s earliest enthusiasts was Hal Finney, a console game programmer and an early member of the “cypherpunk movement” who discovered Nakamoto’s proposal for Bitcoin through the cryptocurrency mailing listing.

In a blog mail service from 2013, Finney said he was fascinated past the thought of a decentralized online currency. When Nakamoto appear the software’s release, Finney offered to mine the first coins — 10 original bitcoins from block 70, which Satoshi sent over equally a test.

Of his interactions with Nakamoto, Finney says, “I thought I was dealing with a immature human of Japanese ancestry who was very smart and sincere. I’ve had the adept fortune to know many brilliant people over the course of my life, so I recognize the signs.”

Finney has flatly denied any claims that he was the inventor of Bitcoin and has always maintained his involvement in the currency was merely ever secondary.

In 2014, Finney died of the neuro-degenerative illness ALS. In one of his final posts on a Bitcoin forum, he said Satoshi Nakamoto’s truthful identity all the same remained a mystery to him. Finney says he was proud of his legacy involving Bitcoin, and that his enshroud of bitcoins were stored in an offline wallet, left as role of an inheritance to his family.

“Hopefully, they’ll be worth something to my heirs,” he wrote.

Equally of today, i bitcoin is worth over $54,000.

Well-nigh a yr later on, Bitcoin is slowly on its way to becoming a viable currency.

Mike Lazlo

In 2010, a handful of merchants started accepting bitcoin in lieu of established currencies.

1 of the first tangible items always purchased with the cryptocurrency was a pizza. Today, the amount of bitcoin used to purchase those pizzas is valued at most $100 million.

Other companies have also started to invest in the currency. In Feb, Tesla purchased over $i billion in bitcoins and moved to permit customers to pay for electric cars with the digital currency, earlier back-tracking a few months later.

In September, Bitcoin gained the status of legal tender within El Salvador. The country plans to build “Bitcoin Metropolis,” which would operate every bit the world’s outset cryptocurrency-based city.

In 2011, the Silk Road, an online marketplace for illegal drugs, launched. Information technology used bitcoin as its chief form of currency.

A snapshot of Silk Road’due south website


Bitcoin is inherently trace-less, a quality that made information technology the ideal currency for facilitating drug trade on the burgeoning net blackness market. Information technology was the equivalent of digital greenbacks, a self-governing system of commerce that preserved the anonymity of its possessor.

With bitcoin, anyone could take to the Silk Road and purchase cannabis seeds, LSD, and cocaine without revealing their identities. And the benefit wasn’t entirely one-sided, either: in some ways, the drug trafficking site legitimized Bitcoin equally a means of commerce, fifty-fifty if it was only being used to facilitate illicit trade.

Two years later, the mysterious figure known as “Satoshi Nakamoto” disappeared from the web.

Clark Moody

On Apr 23, 2011, Nakamoto sent Bitcoin Core developer Mike Hearn a cursory electronic mail.

“I’ve moved on to other things,” he said, referring to the Bitcoin projection. The futurity of Bitcoin, he wrote, was “in good hands.”

In his wake, Nakamoto left backside a vast collection of writings, a premise on the workings of Bitcoin, and the most influential cryptocurrency ever created.

Who is this Japanese-American guy named Satoshi Nakamoto?

Dorian S. Nakamoto, a man who had zero involvement in the cosmos of Bitcoin.


Google “Satoshi Nakamoto” and the results will lead you directly to paradigm later image of an elderly Asian homo. This is Dorian South. Nakamoto, named “Satoshi Nakamoto” at nascency. He is nearly 70 years old, lives in Los Angeles with his female parent, and, equally he has reminded people hundreds of times, is not the creator of Bitcoin.

In 2014, Newsweek reporter Leah Goodman published a characteristic story pinning the identity of Bitcoin’s creator on Nakamoto due to his loftier profile work in technology and pointedly private personal life. Following the story’south firsthand release, Nakamoto was dogged by reporters, who trailed him as he drove to a sushi restaurant. Nakamoto told a journalist from the Associated Press that he had just heard of Bitcoin weeks earlier, when Goodman had contacted him about the Newsweek story.

2 weeks later, he issued a statement to Newsweek, stating he “did not create, invent or otherwise work on Bitcoin.”

Dorian Nakamoto’due south claim was corroborated by the actual Bitcoin creator Satoshi Nakamoto a day later, with Satoshi’south username mysteriously surfacing in an online forum to post: “I am not Dorian Nakamoto.”

The Craig Wright controversy

Australian entrepreneur Craig Wright

Screenshot Via BBC

In 2016, Australian entrepreneur Craig Wright claimed to be the creator of Bitcoin and provided disputed lawmaking equally proof. Bitcoin developer Gavin Andresen further corroborated Wright’s gesture, saying he was “98 percent certain” that Wright was the pseudonymous Nakamoto.

Merely others were quick to disagree, and Wright’s claim drew vehement skepticism from the cryptocurrency community online as well as alleged interest from the FBI. Amid the sudden influx of scrutiny, Wright deleted his post and issued a cryptic apology. “I’thousand sorry,” he wrote, “I believed that I could put the years of anonymity and hiding behind me. But, every bit the events of this week unfolded and I prepared to publish the proof of access to the earliest keys, I broke. I do not have the courage.”

5 years later on, Wright continues to claim that he created the digital currency, but has yet to provide whatever publicly accepted proof.

In November, the family of a deceased man, David Kleiman, sued Wright for half of Nakamoto’s enshroud of i.1 1000000 Bitcoins. The family claims the two men created the cryptocurrency together. The Florida court example is currently in the process of beingness reviewed by a jury.

Nick Szabo has been repeatedly identified as the creator of Bitcoin, a claim he denies.

The mysterious Nick Szabo

Business Insider/Rob Toll

In the form of determining the identity of Nakamoto, there’s i person who has been thumbed once again and again: hyper-secretive cryptocurrency adept Nick Szabo, who was non merely fundamental to the development of Bitcoin, but also created his own cryptocurrency called “bit gold” in the late ’90s.

In 2014, a team of linguistic researchers studied Nakamoto’s writings alongside those of thirteen potential bitcoin creators. The results, they said, were indisputable.

“The number of linguistic similarities between Szabo’southward writing and the Bitcoin whitepaper is uncanny,” the researchers reported, “none of the other possible authors were anywhere near equally practiced of a friction match.”

A story in the New York Times pegged Szabo as Bitcoin’south creator, equally well. Szabo, a staunch libertarian who has spoken publicly nearly the history of Bitcoin and blockchain technology, has been involved in cryptocurrency since its earliest beginnings.

Szabo firmly denied these claims, both in The New York times story and in a tweet: “Not Satoshi, but thank you.”

Hither’s how the existent “Satoshi Nakamoto” could prove his identity:

Flickr/Rachel Johnson

He could use his PGP key

A PGP key is a unique encryption program associated with a given user’southward proper noun — similar to an online signature. Nakamoto could attach his to a post or a message indicating his identity.

He could move his bitcoin

Nakamoto has clustered a fortune in bitcoin: He’s idea to possess over one million coins, which today would exist valued in excess of a billion dollars.

Theoretically, Nakamoto could move those coins to a different address.

Dorian Nakamoto, Nick Szabo, and Craig Wright aren’t the only ones who have been pinned every bit the inventor of Bitcoin.

REUTERS/Stephen Lam

In that location’s a laundry list of people who have been pegged with this merits, but so far, they’ve all been struck downwards. Tesla and SpaceX founder Elon Musk has been accused of existence Bitcoin’s creator — a theory he adamantly denied in 2018.

The Wikipedia entry on Satoshi Nakamoto names at least thirteen potential candidates as being responsible for the creation of Bitcoin.

Information technology’s been over a decade since Bitcoin’s creation, and nosotros’re still not whatsoever closer to confirming who invented information technology.

Why would the inventor of the world’s almost important cryptocurrency cull to remain anonymous?

Bernard von NotHaus, the creator of the Liberty Dollar


Equally it turns out, experimenting in new forms of currency is not without its consequences.

In 1998, Hawaiian resident Bernard von NotHaus dabbled in a fledgling form of currency called “Liberty Dollars” to disastrous results: He was charged with violating federal law and sentenced to six months of house abort, along with a three-yr probation.

In 2007, i of the first digital currencies, E-Golden, was close downwards amid contentious circumstances by the regime on grounds of money laundering.

In January, United states of america Treasury Secretary Janet Yellen suggested steps that could exist taken to “curtail” Bitcoin.

If the inventor of Bitcoin wants to remain bearding, it’due south for good reason: past maintaining anonymity, they’ve avoided adverse legal consequences, making their anonymity at least partially responsible for the currency’s success.

Besides, one of the founding principles of Bitcoin is that it’s a decentralized currency, untethered to conspicuous institutions or individuals. In his original proposition on Bitcoin, Nakamoto wrote, “What is needed is an electronic payment system based on cryptographic proof instead of trust, allowing any two willing parties to transact directly with each other without the demand for a trusted tertiary party.”

Co-ordinate to a public filing from tiptop US digital currency trading platform, Coinbase, if Nakamoto chose to come frontward it could cause bitcoin’s value to plummet.

Why would someone go to all the trouble of creating a decentralized currency without sticking around to receive any of the credit?

Bill Hinton/Getty Images

Much of the mystery surrounding Nakamoto involves his motivations. Why would someone get to the trouble of creating a detailed and brilliant decentralized currency, only to afterwards completely disappear from the public view?

A closer look at one of Nakamoto’s original postings on the proposal of Bitcoin sheds some calorie-free on his possible motivations.

In February 2009, Nakamoto wrote, “The root problem with conventional currency is all the trust that’s required to make it work. The primal bank must be trusted not to debase the currency, just the history of fiat currencies is full of breaches of that trust. Banks must be trusted to hold our money and transfer it electronically, just they lend it out in waves of credit bubbles with barely a fraction in reserve. We have to trust them with our privacy, trust them not to let identity thieves drain our accounts.”

In Bitcoin forums, information technology’due south been speculated that Nakamoto might be “a libertarian and hates the corrupt rich people and politicians.” Other Bitcoin enthusiasts suggest the timing of Bitcoin’s emergence is a articulate indication of its raison d’être: The currency, which was created in the years following the housing bubble flare-up in 2007, might have been invented as a ways of disrupting the corrupted cyberbanking system.

Here’s what we know virtually Satoshi Nakamoto for sure:

Ethan Miller/Getty Images

They’re a genius

In a New Yorker article from 2011, a top internet security researcher describes Bitcoin code as an inscrutable execution that nears perfection: “Only the almost paranoid, painstaking coder in the world could avoid making mistakes.”

They speak fluent English language

Nakamoto has written extensively about Bitcoin, authoring close to lxxx,000 words on the subject in the course of ii years. His piece of work reads similar that of a native English speaker.

They might exist British

Judging by their spelling, and their employ of British colloquialisms (they refer to their flat every bit a “flat” and call the subject math “maths”), it’due south thought they might hail from the Uk.

The timing of his posts seem to indicate this fact as well: It’s been pointed out that Nakamoto posted during UK daylight hours.

They might exist more ane person

The foolproof luminescence of Bitcoin’s lawmaking take left many wondering if it isn’t the piece of work of a team of developers. Bitcoin security researcher Dan Kaminsky says Nakamoto “could be either a team of people or a genius.”

How does its creator feel about its success?

Publican Grant Fairweather talks with a customer from behind the bar where a bitcoin sign is displayed in Sydney, Commonwealth of australia, September 29, 2015.

REUTERS/David Grayness

Joshua Davis, who spent four months researching the possible identity of Bitcoin’s creator for a New Yorker story, says he’due south deeply curious about how the cryptocurrency’s creator feels about its success.

“Every time I come across a news post about the rise of the value of the Bitcoin, I wonder if Satoshi is seeing that too. What’s he thinking? Is he proud? Is he thinking that, at some indicate, some 24-hour interval, he’ll finally reveal himself?”

If “Satoshi Nakamoto” hasn’t revealed himself by now, it’s unlikely nosotros’ll ever know who is.

Zoe Bernard contributed reporting to an earlier version of this article.

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